At DDTCOM, we are serious about good science and effective products as we strongly believe in sustainability and social responsibility. Our research team of distinguished doctors, scientists and herbal experts are leaders in their fields, and their innovative methods and extensive research result in effective natural product that deliver key benefits using indigenous plants. RIPD is about discovery. It’s about having an idea and finding the right environment in which to explore that idea. DDTCOM takes great pride in our ability to provide supportive environments for the exploration of all types of ideas; and with a lot of money invested in research expenditures each year, and a prominent research center, DDTCOM continues to be one of the top idea-incubators in the nation.



Welcome, take a peek into the professional activities of our Research, Innovation and Product Development (RIPD) team – we are very proud of the work they do.

RIPD and the Scholar/Student

DDT College of Medicine provides unprecedented opportunities for scholars and students to explore the frontiers of their fields. Our degrees programs provide unique research opportunities in all areas related to medicine. All the research held at DDTCOM is focused in improving the quality of life for the benefit of national, regional and international communities. RIPD is guided by the schools Vision, to be the leading innovative university in modern medicine and research globally. The students/scholars have state of the art equipment in fully equipped laboratories and well qualified scientists who will be guiding them in pursuit of their (student) research interests.
As the RIPD Director has stipulated to the public in his speech at the 2017 White Coat Ceremony, we are open for collaborations through our Research Mentorship Clinic. The Clinic has been gaining popularity with our local herbalist/traditional doctors who have been forthcoming with indigenous knowledge.




Dr Arthur Saniotis
BSc Clinical Anatomy, PHD Social and Biological sciences
Director: Research, Innovation and Product Development
Tel: (+267) 390 4924/5


Areas of interest
•Biography Arthur Saniotis PhD, B.Sc is a clinical anatomist with doctorates in the social and biological sciences. His research spans across several disciplines and has worked at tertiary institutions in Australia, Asia, Middle-East, Europe and Africa. He is currently lecturer in anatomy and Director of Research at DDT College of Medicine.


• Mohammadi K, Salimi M, Angaji A, Saniotis A, Mahjoobi F. 2022. The Relationship between the Hormone Receptors (ER, PR, HER2) status with Different Levels of BIF-1 Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Patients. BMC Genomics 24;22:471. doi: 10.1186/s12905-022-02075-4. PMCID: PMC9701003.
• Etienne Verlain Fouedjio Kafack, Joseph Fokam, Theophile Njamen Nana, Arthur Saniotis, Gregory Edie Halle-Ekane. 2022. Evaluation of Plasma Viral-Load Monitoring and the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV-1 in the Littoral Region of Cameroon. PLOS ONE 17(11):e0277271. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0277271
• Saniotis A. 2023. Mosaic Model: An integral approach towards understanding development and process of the human brain. Biocosmology-Aristotelian 12(3-4): 434-442.
• De Miguel C, Saniotis A, Cieślik A, Henneberg M. Comparative Study of Brain Size Ontogeny: Marsupials and Placental Mammals. Biology (Basel). 2022 Jun 10;11(6):900. doi: 10.3390/biology11060900
• Bednarik RG, Saniotis A, Henneberg M. 2022. Auto-domestication hypothesis and the rise in mental disorders in modern humans. Medical Hypothesis 164:11087. Research link
• Saniotis A, Al-Salihi MM, Henneberg M. 2022. Knowledge of evolution assists in understanding brain variations in neurosurgery. Anthropologie: International Journal of Human Diversity and Evolution 60(3): 543-545.
• Saniotis, A. 2022. Anatomy of female genitalia and gynaecological complications of female genital mutilation. In: Hamdia Mirkhad Ahmed et al. (eds.) FGM between Islam and Science. Kurdistan, Iraq. Zhian Health Organization.
• You W, Henneberg R, Saniotis A, Yanfei Ge, Henneberg M. 2022. Total meat intake is associated with life expectancy – a cross sectional data analysis of 175 contemporary populations. International Journal of General Medicine 15:1833- 1851.
• Wechalekar H, Taranikanti V, Saniotis A. 2022. Bilateral Variation in the Pudendal Nerve and its Branches. Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology. • Balaky STJ, Saniotis A, Mawlood AH, Shabila NP. 2022. Incidence and Geographical Distribution of Tuberculosis Disease in Erbil City. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology.Research link
• Ralf Brisch, Szymon Wojtylak, Arthur Saniotis, Johann Steiner, Anton Zawrocki, Beata Pieczyńska-Uziębło, Marta Krzyzanowska, Tomasz Gos, Jaliya Kumaratilake, Maciej Henneberg, Rainer Wolf. 2021. Microglial Activation in Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Suicide. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience.
• Saniotis A, Henneberg M. 2021. Secular changes in human reproduction and assisted reproductive technologies. Anthropological Review 84(3), 361–370.
• Saniotis A. 2021. Sushruta on human dissection as pre-requisite to surgery. International Journal of Morphology. 39(6):1787-1790. doi: 10.21203/
• Saniotis A, Henneberg M. 2021. Neurosurgical robots and ethical challenges to medicine. Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics. DOI:
• Saniotis A, Grantham JP, Kumaratilake J, Mohammadi K, Henneberg M. 2021. Going Beyond Brain Size: Serotonergic Regulation in Higher Cortical Functions. Anthropologie: International Journal of Human Diversity and Evolution 59(1): 101-106.
• Saniotis A. 2021. Comment on Psychoneuroimmunology of mental disorders. Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental 14(1):71.
• Abdulkareem NK, Hassan FF, Saniotis A. 2020. Verification and evaluation of radiation doses received by organs at risk in (3D-CRT) and IMRT technique for breast cancer. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1660 012098.
• Saniotis A. 2020. Anthropological and Neuropsychiatric Approaches Towards Understanding Menos in Greek Mythology. Mentalities 34(1): 1-13.
• Saniotis A, Henneberg M. 2020. Anatomical Variations and Evolution: Re- evaluating their Importance for Surgeons. ANZ Journal of Surgery 91(5):837-840. doi: 10.1111/ans.16429
• Mohammadi K, Saniotis A, Hasannejad S, Massoud, Houshmand M. 2020. Meta- analysis of CFTR mutation in Middle- Eastern populations. Canadian Journal of Medicine 2(2020) 1-6.
• Saniotis A. 2020. Editor’s Prelude to Special Issue: ‘Coronaphobia and Fearscapes’. Journal of Futures Studies 25(2): 1–2.
• Saniotis A, Henneberg M, Mohammadi K. 2020. ‘Medicorobots’ as an emerging biopower: how COVID-19 has accelerated artificial intelligence in informing a post corona- world. Journal of Futures Studies 25(2) 9–16. DOI: 10.6531/JFS.202012_25(2).0003
• Saniotis A, Mohammadi A. 2020. Comment on psychological interventions during COVID-19: challenges for Iraqi Kurdistan. Asian Journal of Psychiatry 54, 102284
• Shabila N, Saniotis A. 2020. Loss of trust and reluctance in following COVID- 19 protective measures in Iraq. Posted on June 8, by BMJ Global Health. Blogs in COVID-19 trust-and- reluctance- in-following- covid- 19-protective-measures-in-iraq/
• Saniotis, A. Kumaratilake J. 2020. Cogniceuticals and their Implications for Medical Military Ethics. Journal of Military Ethics 19(1): 69-75. doi: 10.1080/15027570.2020.1776479
• Saniotis A, Henneberg M, Mohammadi K. 2020. Genetic load and morphological changes to extant humans. Journal of Biosocial Science 53(4):639-642. doi:10.1017/S0021932020000413
• Saniotis A. 2020. After more than sixty years we are still unclear whether LSD has a place in mainstream psychiatry. Research in Psychotherapy: Psychopathology, Process and Outcome 23:109- 110.
• Saniotis A. 2021. Gross and clinical anatomy of the female perineum in relation to vaginal birth and iatrogenic caused perineal injuries. In: Hamdia Mirkhan Pirany, Arthur Saniotis (eds.) Handbook for Midwives in Kurdistan: Perineal Trauma and Episiotom y.
• Muche A, Saniotis A. 2020. Position of mandibular foramen and its clinical implications. Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology, 124(3), 319-328. 11660
• Piro TJ, Ali GH, Ahmad HM, Saniotis A. 2020. New mothers’ experience of caring for premature babies after birth. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation 24(08). DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I8/PR280242
• Saniotis A, Henneberg M, Sawalma A. 2020. The feasibility of nanobased neuroprosthetics for treating neurodegenerative disorders. Brazilian Neurosurgery DOI: 10.1055/s- 0039- 3399535
• Saniotis A. 2020. Book review. In: Anna Siniarska, Alicja Budnik, Stanisław Cios. Human Brain, Evolution and Nutrition: Brain and Neural System Create Humanity. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
• Saniotis A. 2020. Primum Non Nocere as a Method for Fostering Peace in Conflict Regions Academic Medicine 95(3); 331-332.
• Saniotis A. 2020. Book Review: Nicollo Leo Caldararo. 2017. Big Brains and the Human Superorganism: Why Special Brains Appear in Hominids and Other Social. Animals. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. HOMO – Journal of Comparative Human Biology 71/3 245–246.
• Saniotis A, Henneberg M, Grantham J, Kumaratilake J. 2020. Neuro- Hormonal Regulation is a Better Indicator of Human Cognitive Abilities than Brain Anatomy: The Need for a New Paradigm Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 13:101. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2019.00101
• Saniotis A. 2019. Evolutionary psychiatry: enhancing our current knowledge of psychopathologies. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy 21(3):13- 14 DOI: 10.12740/APP/110555
• Saniotis A. Henneberg, M, Kumaratilake, J, Grantham, J.P. 2019. Pathological evidence supporting the role of neuro- hormonal regulation in human cognitive abilities.
• Anthropologie: International Journal of Human Diversity and Evolution 57(2):235-236. DOI: 26720/anthro.
• Saniotis A, Henneberg M, Olney D. 2019. Curse of Carbohydrate: How the Rise of Agriculturalism Led to the Demise of Homo. Human Evolution 34(3- 4):133-138.
• Saniotis A. 2019. Becoming Animals: Neurobiology of Shamanic Shapeshifting. Neuroquantology 17(5):81-86.
• Saniotis A. 2019. Comment on Collegiate Neurosurgery in Disaster and Mass Medical Emergencies: Lessons Learned from Mexico. Turkish Neurosurgery 29(5). DOI: 10.5137/1019- 5149.JTN.27087-19.1
• Saniotis A., Henneberg M., Sawalma A-R. 2018. Integration of Nanobots into Neural Circuits as a Future Therapy for Treating Neurodegenerative Disorders. Frontiers in Neuroscience 12:153. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2018.00153
• Kumaratilake J.S., Saniotis A. 2018. Integral segmental bi-lateral renal arteries and unilateral renal veins in a cadaver: A new classification. Int J Anat Var. 11(1):026-031.
• Rothmore P, Saniotis A, Pisaniello D. 2018. A Multi-stakeholder Perspective on the integration of safety in university nursing, education and engineering curricula. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15, 1429; doi:10.3390/ijerph15071429
• Saniotis A. 2018. Understanding Mind/Body Medicine from Muslim Religious Practices of Salat and Dhikr. J Relig Health 57:849–857
• Roccissano D. Kumaratilake J. Saniotis A. Henneberg M. 2016. Dietary fats and oils: Some evolutionary and historical perspectives concerning edible lipids for human consumption. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. 7(8) 689- 702 DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.78070
• Rühli F Henneberg M, Saniotis A. 2016. A. How to teach evolutionary medicine: An Australian and a Swiss experience. Medical Science Educator. 26 (3): 375–381. doi:10.1007/s40670- 016-0245-8
• Saniotis A. Henneberg M, Ebrahimi, G. 2016. Human Microevolution in Outer Space: for Long Term Outer Space Flight. Journal of Futures Studies. 20(4):61–78. DOI:10.6531/JFS.2016.20(4).A61
• Ralf Brisch, Hendrik Bielau, Arthur Saniotis, Rainer Wolf, Bernhard Bogerts, Dieter Krel, Johann Steiner, Katharina Braun, Marta Krzyżanowska, Maciej Krzyżanowski, Zbigniew Jankowski, Michał Kaliszan, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Tomasz Gos. 2015. Calretinin and parvalbumin in schizophrenia and affective disorders: a mini- review, a perspective on the evolutionary role of calretinin in schizophrenia, and a preliminary post-mortem study of calretinin in the septal nuclei. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 29 October 2015
• Saniotis A, Henneberg, M, Kumaratilake, J, Grantham, J.P. 2014. "Messing with the Mind”: Evolutionary Challenges to Human Brain Augmentation. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 8(152): 1-6. DOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2014.00152
• R Brisch, A Saniotis, R Wolf, H Bielau, J Steiner, H Bernstein, B Bogerts, Z Jankowski, J Kumaratilake, M Henneberg, T Gos. 2014. The role of dopamine in schizophrenia from a neurobiological and evolutionary perspective: old fashioned, but still in vogue. Frontiers in Psychiatry 5(47):1-11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00047
• Roccissano D. Henneberg M. Saniotis A. 2014. A possible cause of Alzheimer’s dementia—Industrial soy products. Medical Hypotheses 82(3):250- 4. • Dorstyn D. Saniotis A. Sobhanian F. Coleman K. 2013. A systematic review of telecounselling and its effectiveness in managing depression among minority ethnic communities. Journal of Telem edicine and Telecare 19: 338. DOI: 10.1177/1357633X13501767
• Henneberg M. Saniotis A. Kumaratilake J. 2013. Brain, mind, and novelty: an epistem ology of the human brain. In: Leonid E. Grinin, Аndrey V. Korotayev (eds.), Evolution: Development within Big History, Evolutionary and World- System Paradigms. Volgograd: ‘Uchitel’ Publishing House. pp. 257-266.
• Henneberg M. Saniotis A. 2013. The future mismatch between biological and social development of youths. International Journal of Education and Research 1(2):1- 5.
• Henneberg M. Saniotis A. Kumaratilake J. 2013. Creative and reasoning skills are low among health sciences students who rely mostly on memorised templates: an Australian case. Medical Science Educator 23(1): 35-46.
• Saniotis A. Henneberg, M. 2012. Examining genetic load: an Islamic perspective. Medical Journal of Islamic World Academy of Sciences 20(3):73-80.
• Saniotis A. 2012. Islamic medicine and evolutionary medicine: a comparative analysis. Journal of the Islamic Medical Association of North America. 44:1-9.
• Saniotis A. 2012. Nanomedicine and Future Body Enhancement. Nanotechnology Perceptions: A Review of Ultraprecision Engineering and Nanotechnology 8:77-80.
• Henneberg, M. Saniotis, A. 2012. How can evolutionary medicine inform future personalised medicine? Personalised Medicine 9(2):171-173.
• Henneberg M. Saniotis A. 2012. Craving for drugs is natural: an evolutionary and cross cultural study of hallucinogens and endogenous neuro- hormonal agents producing altered states of consciousness. Anthropos 107 (2): 571-578.
• Saniotis A. 2011. The neural dynamic of empathy: an analysis of conflict systems neurobiological model. Human Evolution 26(1-2):75-83.
• Saniotis A. Henneberg M. 2011. Medicine could be constructing human bodies in the future. Medical Hypothesis 77(4):560- 564.
• Saniotis A. Henneberg M. 2011. Future Evolution of the Human Brain. Journal of Futures Studies September 16(1):1–18.
• Saniotis A. 2010. “Evolutionary and Anthropological Approaches Towards Understanding Human Need for Psychotropic and Mood Altering Substances.” Journal of Psychoactive Drugs December 42(4):477-484.
• Saniotis A. 2010. “Making Connectivities: Neuroanthropology and Ecological Ethics” NeuroQuantology: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Neuroscience and Quantum Physics June 8 (2): 200-205.
• Saniotis A. 2009. “Technologies of the Mind: Neuroanthropology and Memetics” Neuroquantology: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Neuroscience and Quantum Physics June 7 (2): 318-324. ISSN 1303.
• Saniotis A. 2009. “Evolving Brain: Neuroanthropology, Emergence, and Cognitive Frontiers” NeuroQuantology: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Neuroscience and Quantum Physics September 7 (3): 482-490.
• Saniotis A. “Scientific Constructions of Nanobiotechnology.” Nanotechnology Perceptions: A Review of Ultraprecision Engineering and Nanotechnology November 2007 3 (3):175-181.
• Susan Williams, Scott Hanson- Easey, Guy Robinson, Dino Pisaniello, Jonathan Newbury, Arthur Saniotis, Peng Bi. 2016. Heat adaptation and place: experiences in South Australian rural communities. Reg Environ Change. DOI 10.1007/s10113-016- 1011-6
• Saniotis A, Bi P, Hansen A, Kralik D, Arbon P, Nitschke M. 2015. Building community resilience to heatwaves in South Australia.1 Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia (special issue on climate change) 39(1): 113–120.
• A Hansen, P Bi, M Nitschke, A Saniotis, J Benson, Y Tan, V Smyth, L Wilson, G Han, L Mwanri. 2014. Extreme heat and cultural and linguistic minorities in Australia: A qualitative Study. BMC Public Health 14:550 doi:10.1186/1471- 2458-14-550.
• William s S. Bi P. Newbury J. Robinson G Pisaniello D. Saniotis A. Hansen A. 2013. Extreme Heat and Health: Perspectives from health service providers in rural and remote communities in South Australia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 10(11):5565-5583.
• Hansen A. Bi L. Saniotis A. 2013. Vulnerability to extreme heat and climate change: is ethnicity a factor? Global Health Action 6: 10.3402/gha.v6i0.21364.
• Akompab, DA, Bi P, Williams S, Saniotis A, Walker IA, Agostinos M. 2012. Climate Change, Community Understanding and Emotional Responses to the Impacts of Heat Waves in Adelaide, Australia. The International Journal of Climate Change: Impacts and Responses 4(2):109-126.
• Akompab D. Bi P. William s S. Saniotis A. Walker IA, Agostinos M. 2012. Engaging Stakeholders in an Adaptation Process: Governance and Institutional Arrangements in Heat- health Policy Development in Adelaide, Australia. Mitigation and Adaptation of Strategies for Global Change. DOI 1007/s11027- 0129404-4
• Mahmood A. Bauze A.E. Lokhorst J. Bi P. Saniotis A. 2011. Influence of living arrangements on health services utilisation in Australia. Australian Health Review 36(1): 34 - 38
• Bi, P. Williams, S. Loughman, M. Lloyd, G. Hansen, A. Dear, K. Saniotis, A. 2011. The effects of extreme heat in human mortality and morbidity in Australia: implications for public health. Asia- Pacific Journal of Public Health March 23(2):27S- 36S.
• Mahmood, A. Saniotis, A. 2011. Use of Syndromic Management Algorithm for STIs & RTIs Management in Community Settings in Karachi. Journal Of Pakistan Medical Association 61 (5):453- 457
• Saniotis A. Irvine, R. 2010. “Climate Change and the Possible Health Effects on Older Australians” Australian Journal of Primary Health 16, 217–220.
• Saniotis A. 2009. “Akhashic Field as a Source of Human Bioethical Behaviour” Eubios Journal of Asian International Bioethics November 19 (6): 166-170.
• Saniotis, A., Bi, Peng. 2009. “Global Warming and Australian Public Health: Reasons to be Concerned” Australian Health Review. November 33 (4): 611-617.

Recent Publications

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Open a PDF file JOURNAL of Pharmaceutical Botswana.

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